cancer diagnostic methods of prostate
- information collection and inspection
- transrectal digital examination
- ultrasound prostate
- Blood onPSA
- Histological examination
prostate cancer - the most common malignant tumor of the male population of the planet.In the list of cancers, leading to fatal prostate cancer is second only to lung cancer.This high mortality rate is largely due to the late detection of the disease.Diagnosis of prostate cancer is difficult because the early symptoms practically it passes, and minor voiding function characteristic of two stages, can be taken for other, lighter disease.
About 60% of men go to the doctor to have developed metastases in distant organs.Prediction of successful treatment of the disease at this stage is a very low percentage.The risk group consists mainly of men older than 50 years.At that age you need to annually donate blood test for prostate specific antigen, and the appearance of even minor symptoms immed
cancer develops rapidly.The first 2 - 4, he proceeds without any manifestations, but within 5 - 7 years can lead to death.
In this regard, the task of identifying prostate cancer in the early stages.
diagnosis of prostate cancer involves several stages:
- Collection of information and inspection.
- transrectal digital examination.
- ultrasound of the prostate gland.
- blood test for PSA.
- Histological examination.
Collection of information and inspection
Usually, men go to the doctor at occurrence of certain changes in the body.Based on the complaints of the patient's doctor may suggest the development of his prostate cancer and make a preliminary conclusion about the stage of the disease.In the initial stage of development, there are no outward signs of disease prostate cancer, or weakly expressed.However, the manifestation of some of the symptoms should be a signal for the visit to the clinic.The most characteristic symptoms of prostate cancer can be divided into 3 groups:
- Nar usheniya urinary function.Tumor development leads to compression of the urethra in the prostate region.The characteristic symptoms are: a difficult start of urination, thin urine stream interrupt the process, frequent painful urination, incontinence, feeling of incomplete emptying.These symptoms are 2 stage of prostate cancer.
- Violations of body functions in the propagation of the tumor outside the prostate.These include: blood in the urine and semen, urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, pain in the pubic area and crotch.These symptoms are characterized in three-stage prostate cancer.
- Violations related to the development of metastases.Re-defeat cancer of other organs may appear bone pain, edema of the lower extremities, reduced motor capacities up to paralysis, anemia, significant weight loss.Metastases are accompanied by general weakness, fatigue, decreased appetite.These symptoms may indicate cancer running form in 4 steps.
On examination, the patient studied his general condition, body weight, skin.Particular attention is paid to the state of the liver and lymph nodes.
transrectal digital examination
Despite the development of high-tech diagnostic methods such as ultrasound, digital transrectal study is one of the main methods of detecting prostate cancer.This is because the contact with the prostate and rectum is easily detectable when administered to her index finger.
prostate health has small dimensions, is elastic.Well palpable furrow dividing the prostate into two parts.On either side of the prostate seminal vesicles are located, which in some cases can be felt.When pressed on the healthy prostate pain patient no.
sensations as doctor and patient, change On palpation of the affected prostate.When prostate adenoma greatly increased in size, furrow smoothed, but the elasticity of the prostate is preserved, no pain.When prostate cancer is also an increase but to a lesser extent.There it seals associated with inflammatory processes.At present the patient pain.
For prostate cancer, cancerous, characterized by high density, prostate increased in size and has an asymmetry.When pressed on her finger, the patient experiences a sharp pain.
Thus, digital transrectal study gives the doctor an opportunity not only to identify prostate lesion, but also are more likely to determine the nature of this defeat.
Ultrasonography is widely used in the diagnosis of prostate diseases, including cancer.There are several methods for ultrasound of the prostate:
- through the abdominal wall (outside).
- through the perineum (the outside).
- Transrectal (through the rectum).
- transurethral (with the introduction of the sensor through the urethra).
Outside ultrasound - the easiest option from a technical point of view and is not associated with discomfort for the patient.It has no contraindications.Obstacle for this type of ultrasound may be the presence of the patient post-operative wounds in the study area or a drainage tube.Research carried out at bladder filling.Standard scanning is performed in the longitudinal and transverse planes, and if necessary - in any arbitrary plane.The disadvantage of external ultrasound is low resolution, allowing only determine the size and shape of the prostate.In normal prostate gland has an ellipsoidal shape, and its volume is less than 30 cubic meters.cm.
Due to the fact that the outer scanning fails to identify small changes in the structure of the prostate peripheral zone with suspected cancer recommend transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), which is more informative and in 80% of cases allows the diagnosis accurately.For the transrectal ultrasound of the prostate with bladder filling it is not a prerequisite.
Transurethral ultrasound (TUUZI) gives a good visualization of the prostate, but it is rarely used because of the complexity of the probe through the urethra.The technique requires anesthesia.There is a risk of urethral injury.
blood test for PSA
prostate specific antigen - a protein substance produced by prostate cells.Today measure PSA content in the blood serum is the most valuable information for the detection of prostate cancer at an early stage when physical abnormalities is almost impossible to identify. found that the development of malignant tumors invariably accompanied by a high content of PSA in the blood.It should be noted that the high content of PSA is not direct evidence of cancer.It can be caused by infectious inflammation, adenoma, ischemia, ejaculation on the eve of research or physical effect on the prostate.
PSA content is determined by analysis of blood taken from a vein.Depending on the techniques used by the laboratory results in term of reception of prostate specific antigen is from several hours to several days.To avoid false information, when short-term high concentration of PSA
caused by various factors, blood donation should be carried out not earlier than 5 days after such manipulations as prostate massage, transrectal study, TRUS, thermal procedures, enema.For 2 - 3 days before giving blood should refrain from traveling by bike or horse, drinking.
normal rate of PSA content in the blood varies depending on the patient's age.In men, 50 years it should not exceed 2.5 ng / ml to 60 years-of 3.5 ng / ml, and 70 - 4.5 ng / ml, more than 70 years - 6.5 ng / ml.
addition to diagnostic analysis on prostate specific antigen is used to control the process of non-surgical treatment of prostate cancer.
Since the increased concentration of PSA can be caused by various factors, the patient is sent for histological examination (biopsy), which is the final link in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
What is a biopsy?Biopsy is called histological study conducted in order to diagnose the disease.This involves sampling and morphological study of tissue slices.When suspected prostate cancer performed transrectal biopsy.
In modern clinics tissue sampling of the prostate gland is performed under ultrasound guidance.The procedure is as follows.The patient in the rectum ultrasound probe is introduced.The doctor says the affected area and determine the point of tissue sampling.Then, a special channel of the probe needle is held, charged in a device called a gun.During the "shot" short needle enters the prostate, taking the column tissue.For accurate diagnosis of the fence fabric is made from at least 12 sites.
Taken tissue samples are sent for analysis to a laboratory where investigated for the content of cancer cells.Prostate biopsy is performed on an outpatient basis and does not require hospitalization.
The more fences made from different areas, the more accurate the diagnosis.However, in a small area of the lesion in the initial stage of the disease the doctor is not always possible to determine its location, and then the result of the analysis for the presence of cancer cells is negative.
If the suspicion of cancer is still present, for example, due to the high concentration of PSA, a urologist appoints the repeated procedure.A biopsy is used for verification of the diagnosis, which put another doctor.
in clinics without advanced equipment, transrectal biopsy is performed manually.Fence fabric made syringe with a long needle.
This process is much more painful than the fence fabric using a pistol, and in view of the imprecise definition of the affected places often give false results, especially in the early stages of the disease, when the tumor is small in size.
If the diagnosis "Prostate cancer" is confirmed, the doctor may prescribe a further survey on the stage of development and size of the tumor.
To do this bone scan is performed, allowing to identify metastases in the bones, magnetic resonance imaging - view X-ray inspection, in order to establish the degree of spread of cancer.