How is BPH?
- main reasons for the development of prostate adenoma
- How does BPH?
- main stages of development of prostate adenoma
- The main types of complications during prostate adenoma
- Methods of diagnosing lesions of the prostate
- Conservative treatment of prostate adenoma
- Surgical treatment of prostate
BPH - a disease characterized by enlargement of the prostate due to the proliferation of its own tissues.In clinical practice, this disease is often called benign prostatic hyperplasia.Despite the fact that the tumor is benign prostatic nevertheless accompanies the disease most unpleasant symptoms that significantly reduce quality of life.
Risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia lies in the ability of the tumor to transform into malignant.In addition, under certain conditions, the disease may be associated with a number of serious complications that require surgical intervention.One side effect of increasing the size of the prostate in a compression
main causes of prostate
adenoma Many doctors believe that benign growths of tissue processes of the prostate gland is part of the natural aging of the reproductive mechanism of a man of the system. This assumption is not unreasonable, because the disease is diagnosed mainly in men over 50 years.The older man, the higher the risk of developing BPH.Statistics show that approximately 90% of men older than 75 years have some form of this disease.When prostate aging, adenoma and prostatitis is a common phenomenon.The processes of the aging male body mainly originate from hormonal changes.In order to understand the causes of benign prostatic hyperplasia and symptoms characteristic of the course of this disease, it is necessary to consider the anatomy of the body.
This body is located between the pubic symphysis and rectum.In the normal state, it looks like a chestnut.The prostate gland has 2 lobes connected by an isthmus.Between the lobes located urethra.In young men aged 18 to 30 years, this iron is limited in size and weighs about '16 Men older there is the hormonal changes that trigger compensatory phenomenon, provoking an increase in prostate size.Causes of BPH are not yet fully understood, but clinical observations allowed to identify the main predisposing factors and mechanisms of their impact on the process of the disease.
- genetic predisposition.In most cases, men who have early signs of BPH appear at the age of 50 years, have a family history, weighed down with the disease.The mechanism of transmission of predisposition to prostate lesion is not fully understood, but some features of the disease make it clear that the hereditary succession of the aging process occurs in many men.As a rule, men from the same family first manifestations of BPH start at the same age, and the disease is complicated by one pathologist.
- Hormonal changes.The initial stage of the development of the pathology in the prostate gland falls on the period of the natural decrease in the level of sex hormones and early aging of the reproductive system of males.The relationship between the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and decreased levels of sex hormones can be traced very clearly.The fact is that rare cases of prostate adenoma in men younger than 30 years are observed against the background of hormonal disruptions.
- Overweight.In men suffering from different forms of obesity, the risk of prostate and prostate adenoma increases significantly.The thing is that adipose tissue is not only becoming a cause of serious diseases of the endocrine system and metabolic disorders, but also interferes with the normal blood circulation in the pelvic organs, which primarily affects the prostate.
- unbalanced diet.Abuse of acute, fried, salty and fatty foods is a predisposing factor for the emergence of problems with the prostate gland.Observations show that men, clearly watching the balance of nutrients and your diet, much later, faced with the emergence of symptoms from BPH.In addition, it is worth noting the man, spent his entire life in rural areas and use their own grown products that are not only much more rarely suffer from BPH, but also do not face serious complications in the presence of the disease.
- sedentary lifestyle.Prolonged lack of physical activity leads to gradual weakening of the pelvic muscles, which in turn affects all organs located in the area.
is believed that smoking, alcohol abuse, the presence of chronic infectious diseases of the genitourinary system can be predisposing factors for the development of abnormalities in the prostate, but clinical studies have not yet confirmed that BPH is a result of poor lifestyle choices.It is believed that these adverse factors are reflected in the overall rate of aging.
How does BPH?
All existing symptoms can be divided into irritative and obstructive.Irritative symptoms develop as a result of irritation appearing due to prostate enlargement, while obstructive symptoms correlated with urine excretion problems.
first to appear obstructive symptoms in the development of BPH.
- Weak urine stream.In this case we are talking about reducing the rate of urinary diversion due by displacement in a certain place urinary channel, due to proliferation of tissues in the prostate adenoma.
- an initial delay in the flow of urine.This process is also called primary urinary retention and characterized by a delayed onset urinary excretion after the relaxation of the sphincter.The delay lasts for several seconds.
- necessity of participation abdominals during urination.With the development of the symptoms the patient has to make considerable effort to start urination.
- intermittent urination.If the urine flow occurs in parts - it is considered pathology, as in normal spray must be continuous to completely empty the bladder.
- last portion of urine out drop by drop.
- constant feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder.This pathology is observed due to the lack of complete emptying of the bladder.For a complete emptying of the bladder man takes a lot of time to go to the toilet.
Next to the existing symptoms of BPH join irritative symptoms.
- Nocturia.This pathology is manifested by increased frequency of occurrence of urination at night.
- Day polakkiuriya.With the development of this deviation in patients with adenoma prostate becomes more frequent urination.With the rules in 4 to 6 times the number of trips to the bathroom increased to 16-20.
- False urination.Such deviation from the norm is characterized by frequent urge to empty the bladder, but he is not the flow of urine.
constant accumulation of urine in the bladder, prostate adenoma and problems with its outflow leads to stretching of the walls of the bladder and detrusor function violation.Detrusor - a muscle that is contracting, squeezing urine from the bladder.When this muscle tension complete emptying of the bladder occurs.
main stages of prostate
adenoma Symptoms do not appear immediately, but as it were, into one another.Over time, the problems are becoming more and more visible.The flow of BPH can be divided into 3 stages: compensated and decompensated subcompensated.
- compensated stage.This stage is characterized by the absence of symptoms and problems with the outflow of urine, since the restriction of the urinary channel is compensated by considerable stress at the walls of the bladder during urination.The only symptom of this stage is discomfort in the bladder after complete emptying, which are observed for a few minutes.
- subcompensated stage.This stage is accompanied by inflammation of the walls of the bladder and the initial signs of violation of the outflow of urine.When urination is a significant amount of urine in the bladder, which further leads to a number of specific symptoms.
- Decompensated stage.This stage is shown serious violations caused by the destruction of the bladder.At this stage, the patient can not urinate normally, but there is full bladder of urine from the urethra by drop.
The main types of prostate adenoma
flow complications When unfavorable course the disease may be accompanied by a number of dangerous symptoms, most of them requiring special or surgery.
- acute form of urinary retention.The development of this disease is accompanied by a complete cessation of the flow of urine.As a rule, these complications of BPH are observed after severe stress, exposure to cold and other adverse conditions that have taken place in the third stage of development of benign prostatic hyperplasia.The inability to empty the bladder can cause it to overflow and break walls.In order to avoid the most negative effects, the patient should immediately consult your doctor for professional assistance.bladder catheterization is performed to implement the flow of urine.
- formation of bladder stones.Incomplete emptying of the bladder carries a risk of accumulation of mineral deposits.Mineral deposits over time in the bladder cavity sand is first formed, and then the stones of varying sizes.Bladder stones dangerous because under certain conditions, can seep into the urethra, which leads not only to block the flow of urine, and the channel walls to injury.As a general rule, to remove stones require surgical care.
- Inflammatory processes.Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a kind of springboard to infect tissues of the urogenital tract.The most frequently found in prostate adenoma pyelonephritis, ie, inflammation of the renal parenchyma, as well as cystitis - inflammation of the bladder.
- hematuria.This pathology develops in the background of varicose veins in the neck of the bladder due to increase in prostate size.The main symptom of this disease is the appearance of red blood cells in urine.It is not always blood in the urine is visible with the naked eye, as the dose enters the blood in the urine, may be different.Urine becomes red color only if there was significant bleeding.
Usually, complications of prostate adenoma develop only on the background of prolonged absence of the correct treatment of the disease itself or disregard for patients.Often complications are temporary, that is, for example, to address the acute form of the outflow of urine can be quite a catheterization to relieve spasm, after which the function of the bladder and urethra resumes.
Methods of diagnosis of prostate lesions
diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia is based on the collected history, voiding diary patient palpatsionnogo and instrumental types of research.All of these methods allow the study to determine the extent of the prostate lesions, which further allows to assign adequate treatment.It is worth a closer look at the main methods of detection of prostate adenoma.
- Palpatsionnoe rectal prostate research.Carrying out this study to determine the size, consistency, tenderness, and other parameters of the damaged prostate.
- transrectal ultrasonography.This method allows the study to determine the presence of knots and calcifications.In addition, this tool allows you to within a millimeter to determine the size and direction of growth of the prostate.The advantages of using TRUS include the ability to detect prostate adenoma in the very early lines.
- Uroflowmetry.This study reveals abnormalities in the urinary excretion processes.
- definition remains in the bladder of urine.This study is carried out immediately after emptying the bladder.To detect the amount of remaining urine using ultrasound.
- Tsistonanometriya.It allows you to set the pressure inside the bladder.
- Computed tomography.
Conducting this research allows to determine the exact clinical picture of the disease.Next, on the basis of the data can be assigned to conservative or surgical treatment.
Conservative treatment of prostate adenoma
treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia requires an integrated approach.Primarily prostate adenoma doctor can be assigned to the alpha adrenergic blockers.These drugs help to lower the structure of smooth muscle tone of the bladder and the prostate tissue, thereby reducing pressure on the urethra and facilitates urination.There are many drugs that fall into this group, but the selection of a particular tool should be engaged in only by a doctor who sees a clinical picture.
Furthermore, additional alpha reductase inhibitors which promote blocking the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone can be assigned.In addition antieksudativnye and anti-inflammatory medications may be prescribed to these medicines.Drug therapy is quite effective and can reduce prostate size and eliminate the most unpleasant symptoms.In addition, diet and physical therapy may be imposed in addition to drug therapy.
Physical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia is a set of exercises designed to improve blood flow and rigidity of muscles located in the pelvic area.Proper nutrition also plays an important role in the treatment of BPH, as it allows to compensate for the lack of nutrients and organize the work of the genitourinary system.
Surgical treatment of prostate
Surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia can be carried out both by having emergency indications, and in a planned manner.The indications for emergency surgical intervention may make the following pathologies and deviations:
- urinary retention;
- renal failure;
- stones in the cavity of the bladder;
- frequently recurring infections;
- large diverticula in the bladder.