How is mumps: causes and consequences?
- Causes of mumps
- Symptoms and pathogenesis of mumps
- Complications of mumps
- diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mumps
mumps - a viral disease, occurring in the acute form.Mumps is also known as a disease that is considered to be very dangerous disease for boys and adult men.The main danger lies not in the infection and complications that often accompany this disease.The main causative agent of mumps is the mumps virus belongs to the paromiksovirusam.These viruses are highly pathogenic.
level mumps incidence is quite high, since, in addition to high pathogenicity, mumps virus has a long incubation period in which the patient still has no obvious symptoms of the disease continues to infect others.
Epidemic outbreaks of mumps are often observed in closed communities where children or adults stay most of the day indoors and close contact with each other.If in a group, there is one sick, the peak incidence observed
Causes of mumps virus
mumps related to paromiksovirusam, close to its antigen Parainfluenza.This virus has a single-stranded helical RNA that coats the nucleocapsid.The causative agent of mumps has a pronounced polymorphism and can be spherical and round shape, and in some cases, forms of irregular shapes.This virus is perfectly amenable to cultivation in the laboratory, allowing to quickly create a vaccine against it.
worth noting that the mumps virus is extremely unstable in the environment, so rapidly destroyed by heat in the absence of moisture, as well as under the influence of ultraviolet rays.The only thing to which this virus showing resistance, so it's a cold environment, as laboratory studies have shown the viability of the virus at -20 ° C for more than 2 weeks.In addition to instability, to most environmental factors, mumps virus is rapidly destroyed by the action of disinfectants.
not know what it begins with an epidemic of mumps in humans, because the major outbreaks of the disease occur in the off-season, while in the summer, and in winter, when subzero temperature is long, the virus manifests itself rarely.
It is not known where the virus hides in the most adverse periods and for him who is the carrier of the virus, but lab studies show that potential vectors may be rodents.Moreover, these animals can not hurt mumps, but simply excrete the virus in urine and saliva, and human infection occurs through contact with contaminated objects, provided insufficient hygiene.No reliable evidence of this theory is not, but this is one of the most plausible versions of where the virus can hide itself in unfavorable times.
Symptoms and pathogenesis of mumps
Mumps is considered a children's disease as well as the percentage of lesions in children aged 5 to 14 years is much higher than the percentage of incidence in adults.The mumps virus has a long incubation period, so often after the disease one member of the team in a short time become ill and other people. Since the defeat of the body the virus before the first symptoms can take from 11 days to 2-3 weeks.
about 2-3 days before the onset of symptoms of pig, man, sick pig, becomes a peddler virus as a high concentration of pathological microorganisms observed in his saliva.When coughing, sneezing and breathing of the patient weight into the air droplets containing the virus, which leads to infection of others.It should immediately be noted that before the onset of the acute phase there are no symptoms indicating the presence of the disease, but at the same time mild cough may occur from time to time.
At the end of the incubation period begins acute phase.There are a number of symptoms that characterize this period of the disease.
- Increase in body temperature to 38-39 ° C.
- Severe headache.
- General weakness.
- pain in the cheeks that occurs when chewing and speaking.
- swelling in the salivary glands.
- skin near the tumor becomes stretched and shiny.
usually the first affected the parotid gland, which is why the patient greatly swollen face and raised area earlobe that leads to the fact that the patient acquires a characteristic of this type of disease.In the future, the mumps virus can spread to the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands.After the defeat of the glands there is a strong swelling of the cheeks and neck, which reaches its maximum size at 3-5 day course of the disease.
Some patients because of the defeat of the salivary glands there is a strong dry mouth.Swelling after reaching its maximum size is kept for 2-3 days, and then begins to descend slowly.In most patients, the tumor completely disappears in 7-10 days.At the site of the tumor for some time, the skin is stretched, but then regains tone.Children much easier to tolerate a pig than adults, but also in the one and the other category is impossible to completely eliminate the development of serious complications.
Complications of mumps
If mumps is very important to carefully monitor the condition of the patient, in time to notice the appearance of complications.
As a rule, the main marker attachment inflammation in the glands of internal secretion is the sharp increase in body temperature, after over a period of temperature kept at a normal level.
most common complication with mumps observed damage the thyroid, pancreas and gonads.In rare cases, due to complications of mumps may develop central nervous system, expressed meningitis.
defeat of the thyroid gland leads to a drastic reduction of its functions, the appearance of swelling and pain in the neck.Swelling of the thyroid gland can trigger asthma attacks, but such cases are extremely rare.
With the defeat of the pancreas are observed in patients with severe abdominal girdle pain, complete loss of appetite, vomiting and diarrhea.The defeat of the thyroid and pancreas is a springboard for the development of diabetes mellitus and other metabolic diseases in the future.
No less dangerous is the defeat of the sexual glands.In girls, the ovaries defeat at pig rarely leads to serious disruption of reproductive function, while in boys and adult men testicular lesion can cause the development of infertility as a consequence of the termination of spermatogenesis.
With the defeat of the testicles in male patients has been a sharp increase in temperature, there is swelling of one or both testicles.The scrotum is greatly increased in size and tenderness.
scrotal skin in lesions of the testes does not change color and texture.The result of the defeat of the sex glands can be inflammation of the testicles in the field, which flows into the orchitis.
This complication of the disease can lead to atrophy of the testes with complete loss of function.In the future, restore the function of the testicles is not possible.
diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mumps
In an exemplary embodiment, the flow of mumps diagnosis is not serious work, even without additional tests, as can be determined on the basis of available mumps symptoms.In rare cases, non-specific of the disease may be necessary to study mucosal swabs and throat secretions of the parotid salivary glands, as well as urine and cerebrospinal fluid.
In case of complications of mumps shown treatment at home.There are no drugs that can destroy the mumps virus, and it is not required, as the human immune system itself copes with this task.In order to help the body to quickly deal with the disease, is shown taking drugs, eliminating the symptoms, ie fever and pain.
To reduce the risk of complications, it is necessary to provide the patient a complete rest and bed rest.In addition, it is important to stick to milk-vegetable diet, to reduce the load on the pancreas and to prevent its destruction by the virus.Clinical studies show that men who ignored the bedding and rules of nutrition in disease, about 3 times more likely to develop complications of the disease was observed.
In most cases of mumps morbidity recommended in-patient treatment with the appointment of drugs directed action.For example, in the development of lesions of the pancreas with symptoms of pancreatitis are usually appointed by the preparations containing atropine, amizitsin and papaverine, and, moreover, shows a cold compress on the abdomen and a light diet.In complicated form of pig flow it is very important to follow the doctor's recommendation, as the only correct approach to treatment allows to minimize the risk of serious consequences of the disease.
main measures of prevention of mumps is vaccination of children and the introduction of quarantine in the first case of mumps infection.Vaccines made of live mumps vaccine.quarantine period in the institutions, where there is an outbreak, is 21 days.