Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cells cells - the most important link of the human immune system.They are involved in the production of antibodies that destroy bacteria and the body's own cells affected by pathologies.They regulate the entire immune system.
Currently lymphocytes such classes are distinguished: T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and NK-cells.The first class of the most extensive, the total proportion in the blood is 65-80%.Like all cells, T cells are produced in bone marrow, but, unlike the others, ripen in the thymus.It is in the thymus is a process of differentiation and selection of T-lymphocytes.After maturation of T-lymphocytes begins to form antigen-T cell receptor to which they are distinguished from foreign antigens organism antigens.
Upon exiting the bone marrow into the peripheral blood occurs in maturation of lymphocytes.This occurs in the secondary immune organs.Total blood B lymphocytes is 8-20%.These compounds recognize all types of antigens, and fixing them on their cell
NK-lymphocytes, also called natural or natural killer cells.Unlike other types of lymphocytes, they have a large size and the granules in the cytoplasm.Furthermore, they are characterized by the absence of antigen-receptor on the membrane.Their main task is to destroy the target cells, ie, virus-infected cells and tumor cells.Normal their content in peripheral blood is 5-20% of the total number of lymphocytes in the blood.
norm in blood lymphocytes for the stronger sex is 1,2-3 thousand / ml, which is about 25-40%.If there is an increased number of them, such a state is called lymphocytosis and low - lymphopenia.When conducting a clinical trial should be determined not only qualitative changes in blood lymphocytes in men but also relative to occur with respect to other types of leukocytes in the blood.Such data may indicate the presence of any diseases and pathologies of the organism.
main reasons for increase of lymphocytes include: infectious diseases (whooping cough, measles, chicken pox, mumps, malaria, infectious mononucleosis and lymphocytosis, viral hepatitis, chronic tuberculosis and secondary syphilis), the period of recovery after acute infection, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, vagotonia, hypersensitivity as a result of medication, thymic hyperplasia, asthma and serum sickness.In addition, this problem may occur when raising the level of hormones secreted by the thyroid gland, that is, in thyrotoxicosis.Out of this situation is only one: it is necessary to identify and eliminate the cause of the condition.Remember that at elevated lymphocyte treatment should be directed not to reduce the level of, and the disease itself.The course of treatment can range from a few days to a few months, it all depends on the existing disease.
Reduction of lymphocytes in the blood may be observed in diseases such express cell death resulting from stress, radiation therapy, or during chemotherapy, increasing the overall size of the spleen (splenomegaly), exposure to ionizing radiation (aplastic anemia), various liver diseases (chronic phase), chronic renal failure stage, as well as primary, secondary immunodeficiency diseases (including AIDS).
One variety of white blood cells are actively absorbing monocytes.They protect the body against infectious and viral diseases, absorbing foreign agents.The rate of their content in the peripheral blood of men shall be 0,04-0,7 million / L, which is about 1-8%.The reasons for raising the level of their number are: fungal infections, infectious mononucleosis, viral diseases, tuberculosis, syphilis.This can also occur during leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and other diseases.Lowering the level of monocytes is observed in aplastic anemia, and Cushing's disease.
To the group of large leukocytes which are in tissue are basophils.They successfully protect the body from toxins and poisons.This is an extremely important link in the chain of immunological.Increasing its provisions may be indicative of such diseases: chickenpox, acute leukemia, allergic reactions, inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract in the chronic stage of Hodgkin's disease.Reduced basophil blood may occur during acute infectious processes, but also with an increase in the level of hormones secreted by the thyroid gland.
for absorption system antigen-antibody is such a variety of cells, such as eosinophils.They are produced in the bone marrow and then pass into the tissue.Their rate in the male body is 0.02-0.3 thousand / ml, ie 0-5%.Awareness can occur when helminthiases, a variety of allergic reactions, skin diseases, while diseases of the blood or of scarlet fever, and after a difficult infectious diseases.Reduced levels observed in burns and injuries, acute infectious diseases, during a state of shock and in the postoperative period.
Another kind of white blood cells are plasma cells, whose main function is to produce immunoglobulins for the body.Once the signal is an antigen, the cells begin to settle directly in the lymph nodes, leukocytes are transformed into plasma.They are able to fight with only one type of antigen.Normally, plasma cells are found in the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow.On the periphery, they are completely absent, but may be detected during activation of specific processes.If plasma cells were detected in the peripheral blood, it may indicate the presence of such diseases: viral diseases, such as measles, mononucleosis, rubella and chickenpox, pathological processes (autoimmune disease, serum sickness, tuberculosis), cancer.This can happen when exposed to ionizing radiation and plasmacytoma.
It should be noted that the rate of white blood cell count depends on the cell type, the age and sex of the patient.Therefore, when carrying out analyzes, and other laboratory tests necessary to consider these nuances.