called erythrocytes of human blood cells, and some vertebrates and invertebrates, which contain hemoglobin.Erythrocyte disk is the correct form, slightly thickened at the edges.Due to this structure, they are enriched with oxygen as much as possible during the passage through the human bloodstream.In addition, these cells even absorb carbon dioxide.
data cells are formed in the marrow under the influence of erythropoietin or kidney hormone.Two thirds they consist of hemoglobin, namely a protein in which its turn contains iron.The lifespan of red blood cells is about 120 days.After expiration they collapse in the liver and spleen.It should be noted that their destruction does not affect the total number of erythrocytes in the body because they are constantly updated in the bone marrow.
The main function of these cells is to tissue oxygenation.Furthermore, they are transferred to the carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs of the organism.Red blood cells carry more nutrient function that is transfer
More recently indicator of red blood cells was calculated in millions of cells per cubic millimeter.In our time, a common unit is given in SI indicator: one million cells per liter of blood.Although sometimes found in the analyzes and the old units.
Norma blood erythrocytes for adult men is 4,2-5,3h1012 / l.In elderly people the number of red blood cells is reduced to 4-4,2h1012 / l.
condition in which there is increase in the level of red blood cells, called erythrocytosis.There are primary and secondary erythrocytosis.In the first case, the disease is caused by malignant transformation of cells dining polypeptide, resulting in hard starting to share progenitor cells erythrocytosis.This disease can be attributed to a number of hematological malignancies.In most cases, it is accompanied by the proliferation of hemopoietic other germs, thereby increasing not only the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets.
Secondary red blood cells, in turn, is divided into physiological absolute polycythemia, abnormal secondary polycythemia absolute and relative to the secondary polycythemia.
first appearance of the disease occurs during prolonged hypoxia, due to the need to increase the supply of oxygen to the body.Usually this pathology develops in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital "blue" heart defects, altitude sickness, heavy smokers, as well as hemoglobinopathies with increased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.
reason for the development of secondary absolute erythrocytosis can be called diseases that directly or indirectly lead to the abnormal stimulation of excessive production of erythropoietin, resulting in the number of red blood cells in the blood increases.Such diseases are renal cysts, hydronephrosis, tumors and cerebral cortical layer of the adrenal, pituitary adenoma and cysts, renal artery stenosis or renal transplantation.In addition, such pathologies and leads prolonged steroid treatment.When
secondary erythrocytosis relative increase relative to the erythrocytes in blood, as the total amount does not change, and only increases the ratio of erythrocytes to the blood volume.The causes of the disease is dehydration, such as diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, burns and shock, as well as excessive diuretics.
Reduced red blood cells in the blood (erythropenia) may indicate anemia, although, in contrast to the decrease in the hemoglobin level is not obligatory symptom of the disease.A specific type of anemia can be determined by other indicators in the general analysis of blood, or the results of additional tests, which appointed the attending physician.Also reduced the level of red blood cells can be observed in recent bleeding or hidden internal bleeding.
To make an accurate diagnosis (decreased or increased levels of red blood cells) must also take into account the shape and size of the cells themselves.Most often, the red blood cells in the blood of various sizes occur with anemia.The diameter of these cells in a healthy person is 7.5 microns such normocytes called erythrocytes.Accordingly, increased red blood cells in the blood called macrocytes and reduced - microcytes.Macrocytosis mainly occurs in malaria, liver disease and lung disease.The causes of microcytosis are malignant disease, hemolytic anemia, and anemia after chronic blood loss.
Specific changes in the shape of red blood cells may indicate congenital diseases.Young reticulocytes called erythrocytes form which may be in the peripheral blood.They should be about 0.2-1.2% of the total number of red blood cells.This is indicative of an intense work of human bone marrow, which produces red blood cells in the blood of new cells.Reticulocytosis, i.e. by increasing the number of reticulocytes to the total number of erythrocytes is a good indication if the person is being treated for anemia caused by a deficiency of vitamin B12.But low levels of reticulocytes in the blood speaks of low bone marrow activity of man.
Remember that any change in the level of red blood cells in the blood indicates any changes in the body, so you need to conduct regular blood tests.