In the middle of the twentieth century platelets called differently.But 40 years later, it was found that they are involved in thrombus formation and are relevant to blood clotting.After some time, scientists have begun to study and platelet function, but to the present time, these cells are not yet fully understood.
platelets - a nuclear-free education, surrounded by a membrane.They represent one of the types of blood cells that are produced in the bone marrow.Platelet like otshnurovyvaetsya of megakaryocyte cytoplasm, and then released into the blood.These mature cells of about 8 days, and they are processed in the bloodstream of 8 to 11 days.
The normal diameter of the platelet is 3-4 microns, respectively, the form of platelets can have a smaller size, then they are called microforms, and a larger size that is called macroform.These cells have a circular or oval shape with a smooth surface, but when they come into contact with any foreign surfaces, they become activated and assume the form of a sta
The platelets are four zones.The first zone is used to activate the platelet, it is called nadmembranny layer or glycocalyx.After that comes the membrane, which helps in the process of interaction with platelet coagulation factors.In the inner layer of the membrane is a system of canals connecting the surface of the membrane and the cytoplasm.A third zone called the gel or matrix area.It contains the mitochondria - the permanent inclusion in plant and animal cells.They secrete granules and are involved in the synthesis of the processes occurring in cells.Next zone - organelles - contains four types of granule that accumulate clotting factors.These granules include some elements of mitochondria, vesicles, and the contrast of grain tubule.
Platelets also contain substances that accelerate the phase-out of the inactive clotting factors in the active.The structure of these cells includes an enormous number of proteins or proteins, amino acids and a little less fat.In addition, they contain lipoprotein complexes, glycogen, a small amount of ash, calcium, potassium, sodium, copper, magnesium, iron, manganese and other elements.
Norma platelets in the blood to the stronger sex is dependent on several factors.platelet live cells only 7-10 days, meaning that the need for normal hematopoiesis constant updating."Bad" platelets break down and excreted from the body by means of the liver and spleen.blood cell data rate for men is around 180-320 billion / l.In women, the number of these cells varies depending on the menstrual cycle, while in men it is usually the same.It can be changed only after a large blood loss or severe physical exertion.
Exceeding standards platelet thrombosis, which may lead to serious vascular diseases, with clots formed in the blood.Primary thrombocytosis in many cases diagnosed in older men with the general blood tests.In the early stages of the disease is difficult to detect.The children of the symptoms can be observed only headaches.If thrombocytosis revealed until until there have been major changes in the blood, it can be cured by medication method, the number of cells returned to normal.
more dangerous to life and health of the patient is a secondary form of thrombocytosis.There are several reasons for its occurrence: various infections, inflammatory diseases, cancers and surgical procedures, incorrect use of medicines.To reduce the number of platelets in the blood recommend taking Aspirin, antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, and plateletpheresis.These drugs reduce the risk of blood clots.
If the analysis showed a reduced number of blood cells, in this case we can talk about the presence of thrombocytopenia.In the acute form of the disease decreased platelet count may occur within six months, if the problem dragged on longer, it's a chronic form.Thrombocytopenia in the stronger sex is usually asymptomatic, so some experts argue that the rate for men is much smaller, but no official figures yet.
There are several main reasons for reducing the number of blood cells: an accelerated process of cell destruction, disturbance of bone marrow operation, improper distribution of elements across the blood channel.Although men often do not notice the presence of thrombocytopenia, yet there are some warning signs: a tendency to bleeding gums, frequent nosebleeds, rapid bruising in the absence of severe damage, as well as bleeding from the digestive system.Reducing the number of blood cells responsible for blood clotting in some cases may indicate an early stage of human immunodeficiency virus, so it is necessary to pay special attention.
To increase the number of platelets specialists prescribe steroid course.If within six months of treatment has not brought results, carried out an operation to remove the spleen, because this body is responsible for the breakdown and removal of unsuitable blood cells.After the operation, in most cases there is a sharp increase in the number of platelets.And to fix the result, usually prescribed immunosuppressants and steroids.
Remember, diseases related to blood issues, should deal exclusively with the attending physician.This will help to achieve the necessary results and not to harm the body.