rectal cancer is a malignant tumor that causes the cells lining the colon.A tumor can grow even in the intestinal wall or act in its lumen.Over the past few years, the incidence of colorectal cancer has increased several times.Thus it is more common in civilized countries.The leader is the US, followed by Canada, Israel and Australia, but in Japan, despite the development of capitalism, the disease is extremely rare.Rectal cancer in most cases affects the elderly, have stepped fifty abroad.
In medicine, there is still no proven causes of cancer in the colon.But most doctors agree that cancer is directly related to the formation of polyps in the colon.Polyps are called benign growths that appear on the intestinal mucosa.
at risk, especially men fall, which someone from the family members was diagnosed with cancer, in this case, you must be examined as soon as possible.Also rectal cancer can cause inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis).The probability of rectal cancer and improv
Symptoms of colorectal cancer in the stronger sex depend on the stage of disease, tumor growth nature (in the bowel lumen, intramural, or mixed growth) and the level of its location.There are four main groups of symptoms that are most characteristic of this disease.
most often in rectal cancer in men bleeding observed.It can also occur in the early and later stages.Thus, as a rule, small intestinal bleeding, they usually occur as blood in the stool or dark clots.Unlike bleeding from hemorrhoids, in this case blood is mixed with feces or stool precedes.But hemorrhoids blood usually appears at the end of the act of defecation, stool top covering.Together with the blood of cancer of the rectum from the anus can stand out mucus and pus.This is mainly observed in the later stages of the disease and is caused by the presence of concomitant rektita (inflammation of the rectum), proctosigmoiditis (inflammation of the rectum and sigmoid) and tumor lysis with inflammation.
Another frequent bowel disorders various functions can be called a symptom of colon cancer, such as: changes in stool form, defecation rhythm, constipation, diarrhea or fecal incontinence and gases.In some cases, there are frequent false urge to defecate, which are accompanied by the release of a small amount of blood, mucus and pus.In addition, after a bowel movement in a patient there is a sensation of a foreign body in the rectum.False desires may occur from 3 to 15 times a day.The larger the tumor, the more it becomes persistent constipation, observed in patients with bloating.At first, these symptoms do not occur often, but then become permanent.The further growth of the tumor can cause partial or complete obstruction of the intestine.The men at the same time there are cramping abdominal pain, accompanied by delayed gas and stool, occasionally vomiting occurs.
The local tumor dissemination, especially by making it to surrounding tissues and organs in men having strong pain.Pain is the first symptom of the disease at an early stage only if the localization anorectal cancer while patients can take on only one half of the buttocks.Due to the daily loss of blood and tumor toxicity at a later stage is disturbed general condition of the patient (fatigue, weakness, weight loss, anemia, paleness covers).
For suspected cancer proctologist should first carry out digital examination of the rectum.With this simple method can detect a tumor that is located at a distance of 15 cm from the anus, and even a little higher.In addition, it also gives direction on the analysis of stool to detect hidden blood in it.To confirm the diagnosis, a sigmoidoscopy is required to be appointed, ie examination of the rectum through the proctoscope - a special hollow metal tube, which is brought to light.Also in the course of this survey can be a biopsy, that is to pinch off a small piece of the tumor for a detailed examination under a microscope (histological examination).Only with the help of this study can determine the benign or malignant tumor.Among other things, the doctor can even assign ultrasound probe that is inserted into the rectum, colonoscopy, computed tomography or X-rays.
Currently, the main treatment for colon cancer is surgery.Operation Selection depends primarily upon where the tumor is located and how it has grown into the intestine.With the appropriate technical conditions along with the tumor removed part of the rectum, then restore its integrity: the resulting sutured wound.If you sew the ends of the intestine does not work, then carry out the operation Hartmann.In this case, the tumor is removed, the upper end of the bowel is withdrawn as a colostomy (derived skin stomach ulcer site which will perform the function of the anus), and the bottom is sewn up.In the future it will be possible to make a second operation, and restore the integrity of the intestine.
rectum sometimes completely removed along with the anus and colostomy formed.Such operation is required if the tumor is located too close to the anus, not just the tumor below a healthy gut wall.Often the treatment of colorectal cancer before and after radiation therapy is used (sometimes in combination with chemotherapy).If we apply the radiation therapy prior to surgery can reduce swelling and facilitate its removal, and after surgery can improve treatment results and prevent the occurrence of new tumors.
prevention of colorectal cancer is the leading healthy lifestyle, quitting smoking and maintaining normal body weight.In addition, it is advisable to eat more plant-based foods, which contain anti-cancer compounds (mushrooms, onions and garlic).Lack of folic acid together with excess consumption of alcohol increases the chances of cancer.Therefore it is necessary to consume green vegetables are rich in folic acid.To reduce the time of passage of stomach contents through the colon to help foods high in fiber (dried fruit, brown rice).
Remember, you must undergo regular diagnostic testing and do colon cancer prevention, so that you can prevent several gastrointestinal diseases.